At our general meeting on Tuesday, December 10 we had:
Speaker: Franco Albi
Franco is the Senior Manager of Strategy Integration at Portland General Electric. His team is responsible for corporate strategy and integrated resource planning, focusing on building stakeholder trust and working with customers to provide the best outcomes for delivering clean energy safely, reliably, and affordably. Mr. Albi has been working in the energy industry for over 20 years leading development and implementation of sustainable resources.
Prior to establishing the Strategy Integration group, Mr. Albi lead various projects in power supply and power delivery including development, construction, and commissioning of the Tucannon River Wind Farm, Boardman Air Quality Controls, and T&D infrastructure improvements.
Prior to joining PGE, Mr. Albi worked with PacifiCorp and the Bonneville Power Administration. His educational background includes an MBA and Master’s in Civil Engineering and he is a registered Professional Engineer in Oregon and California.
Presentation: PGE Integrated Resource Plan Slides For Franco Albi
An integrated resource plan is a utility plan for meeting forecasted annual peak and energy demand, plus some established reserve margin, through a combination of supply-side and demand-side resources over a specified future period. On July 19, 2019, Portland General Electric filed a 2019 integrated resource plan with the Oregon Public Utility Commission.
Portland General Electric’s vision for a clean energy future includes measures to Decarbonize the electricity provided to customers, Electrify the energy economy, and Partner with customers to integrate their energy technology choices. Franco will share an overview of PGE’s strategy and some of the key actions they are taking, from bringing more renewables online to modernizing the platform to manage clean energy to enabling transportation electrification to making sure all customers thrive in the clean energy future.
At our general meeting on Tuesday, November 12, we heard a presentation from Christopher Dymond, speaking on “U. S. Energy Trends”.
Speaker: Christopher Dymond
Christopher is a Sr Product Manager, working for the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance.
He holds a Master’s degree in building systems engineering from the University of Colorado, and an undergraduate degree in Engineering Physics from Oregon State University. He has over 25 years’ experience in energy efficiency of commercial buildings, residential technologies, policy development and solar power. Prior to joining NEEA he worked 4 years at EDF Renewable Energy as manager of emerging technologies where he did system design and due-diligence evaluation for both utility and commercial scale solar power projects, and 12 years at the Oregon Department of Energy an energy analyst on efficiency and renewable energy systems.
Presentation: NEEA and Energy Efficiency NEEA and Energy Efficiency Slides
NEEA is tasked with securing energy efficiency resources through actions that influence the market by working with manufactures, federal standards, distribution and other non-customer facing actions. These have resulted in resources considerably cheaper than building new power plants for the region. Christopher will present some context on about the regional resources mix and role of efficiency followed by a few examples of programs NEEA has been and is currently working on to effect change in the market toward greater energy efficiency. This will include current NEEA work on very high-efficiency dedicated outdoor air systems for commercial buildings and new opportunities in residential heating and cooling systems.
At our general meeting on Tuesday, October 8, we heard a presentation from Jack Kerfoot, speaking on “U. S. Energy Trends”.
Speaker: Jack Kerfoot Slides: us_energy_ev_trends.pdf
Jack Kerfoot is scientist, energy expert and author of the book “FUELING AMERICA, An Insider’s Journey.” He has spent over forty years in the energy industry working with scientists, bureaucrats, ministers, sheikhs and potentates on energy projects around the world. Jack is the principal of JL Kerfoot Energy Services and has been on numerous national radio and television talk shows to discuss energy issues in America and around the world. He blogs at “Our Energy Conundrum” at http://www.jackkerfoot.
Presentation: U.S. Energy Trends
The presentation discusses the driving forces and trends for each of the major energy sources (oil & gas, coal, nuclear & renewable energy). It provides multiple reasons (climate change, air quality, economics, rapidly declining supplies of all fossil fuels) for America to rapidly move to renewable energy.
The presentation shows that wind, solar & hydro are now cheaper than any form of fossil fuel and that it is imperative we look to increase the support for renewable energy, using multiple, irrefutable facts.
Transportation is now the largest source of greenhouse gases in America. The last few slides show that a transportation revolution is taking place in America and around the world. In Jack’s opinion, 2025 will be the tipping point when more people in America will buy new EVs than internal combustion engines.
On Tuesday, September 10, ESF will host a presentation on wave energy capture. Wave energy capture is an especially intriguing source for Oregonians as our state has significant potential for its development.
Speaker: Dr. Burke Hales
Dr. Hales is the chief scientist for the wave energy test site that is being developed about seven miles west of Newport on the Oregon coast. Dr Hales is a professor in Oregon State's College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences.
Presentation: Wave Energy Capture
The Wave Energy Capture project is known as PacWave. It will provide grid connected wave energy testing in an open ocean environment. Oregon State has received a 35 million dollar grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop and build out the site.
It has been estimated that, globally, the marine energy market could reach nearly $700 billion by 2050. The World Energy Council estimates that 10 percent of worldwide electricity demand could be met by harvesting ocean energy.
You won't want to miss Dr Hales' presentation on this transformational project occurring right within our own state.
For our May Meeting Presentation:Addressing Climate Change Everywhere, All Of The Time [but from a Milwaukie, OR perspective]
Speaker: Mark Gamba is the Mayor of Milwaukie, Oregon. He serves on the executive committee of the Metropolitan Mayors Consortium, is past chair of the Metropolitan Policy Advisory Committee, and serves on numerous other committees. Mark entered politics six years ago with a run for Milwaukie City Council. As a photographer for National Geographic, he witnessed firsthand the urgent need for all of us, everywhere, all of the time, to be working to address climate change, and realized public office was the place he could make the greatest impact. Mark is frequently invited to speak on climate issues, and is a past participant in Al Gore’s Climate Reality Leadership Corps training.
Speaker: Kathy Hyzy, Milwaukie City Council Member, is a lifelong advocate for the natural world. She holds an MS in Environmental Studies from the University of Montana and has worked for a number of environmental organizations in the Northwest, including Renewable Northwest and Oregon Environmental Council. After serving as a citizen member of Milwaukie’s Climate Action Plan Committee, she was elected to Milwaukie City Council in November 2018.
Presentation: Addressing Climate Change Everywhere, All Of The Time Slides: rsf_cap_presentation.pdf
Oftentimes our policy focus on climate issues is trained on the global or national level, yet taking a stand on climate change is possible and essential for a city of any size. After months of input from community stakeholders, in October of 2018, Milwaukie’s Climate Action Plan—which will make Milwaukie a fully carbon neutral city by 2050—was finalized and adopted by Milwaukie City Council. Mark and Kathy will share how the plan was developed, the specifics of where Milwaukie is focusing its efforts, and how the plan is gradually being implemented throughout the community.
For our April Meeting Presentation: Biogas Utilization at the Columbia Blvd Wastewater Treatment Plant
Further information at: Renewable Natural Gas project
Speaker: Vu Han, P.E.: Engineer, City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services, Treatment and Pumping System Division
For our March Meeting Presentation: we heard a presentation from Jen Coleman of the Oregon Environmental Council and Mary Peveto, Co-Founder of Neighbors for Clean Air on “Ditching Dirty Diesel”.
Speaker – Jen Coleman
Jen Coleman is Oregon Environmental Council's Health Outreach and Communications Director. For ten years, she has worked with Oregon Environmental Council to advance policies that reduce toxic exposures in our environment and to give people the tools they need to act on their health and environmental values. Jen has served on the governor's Environmental Justice Task Force, the Multnomah County Healthy Homes Coalition, the Healthy Communities Coalition, and more. Before moving to Oregon to work with OEC, Jen spent ten years working with Environmental Defense Fund in New York.
Speaker – Mary Peveto
Mary co-founded Neighbors for Clean Air in 2010 with friends and neighbors to work for stricter state standards to regulate air toxics in Oregon and to continue to strengthen and galvanize the citizen action necessary to effect change in regulating toxic air pollution. She is a mother of three who calls herself an “accidental activist.” She started organizing neighbors and parents when she stumbled upon a national study published in 2008 that showed her daughters’ school to be ranked among the worst 2% in the nation for schools at risk to toxic industrial air pollution. Mary guides NCA's policy work in addition to leading the organization as a whole.
Note: In the confusion on quorums in the Senate, this bill was in the Sunday, last day rush –> It passed. Probably not same as February version, above.
Pollution from old heavy-duty diesel engines is one of Oregon's worst air quality problems, taking a multi-billion-dollar toll on our health. And yet it's one of the most fix-able problems as well: engine technology and federal standards have made new heavy duty engines 95% less polluting in the last decade. The problem: old engines in Oregon are far outlasting their expected lifetime—and more old engines continue to be added to Oregon's fleets. The Oregon Environmental Council ha sponsored HB 2007: A bill to clean up old heavy and medium-duty diesel engines.
For our February Meeting, We had two speakers to talk about Wind Systems for the Northwest
Speaker: Michael Mitton
Michael Mitton is a retired biotech CEO. For the past 30 years he has been a climate activist. He has researched and compiled an economic development scenario for Coos Bay because he believes it can bring sustainable economic benefits to the region and help Oregon become a clean energy leader. He has no proprietary interest in any aspect of this project and hopes local leaders will pick it up and carry it forward.
Presentation: Coos Bay Offshore Wind Opportunity
Speaker: Steve Saylors
Steve is a Senior Member of IEEE and is currently employed as Senior Specialist by Vestas Wind Systems. In this capacity he serves as internal subject-matter-expert on electrical power generation systems, wind turbine design, and transmission system interconnection/integration issues.
Previously while working for the Bechtel Power Corporation in San Francisco, and Portland General Electric he was assigned to the design, construction and operation of electrical power plants, mostly nuclear and coal-fired; as well as power transmission & distribution projects.
At our January 8 meeting, we heard a presentation from Deborah Romerein, a member of a Portland based working group called Stop Fracked Gas PDX. Members of the group are drawn from many environmental groups including Physicians for Social Responsibility, the Sierra Club and 350.PDX. Deborah is a business owner with a background in financial services.
Presentations:The Finance of Fracking, Jordan Cove Update and Kalama Methanol Project
To outward appearances the U.S. oil and gas fracking industry is in the midst of a decades long energy boom with record output and profits. But what is really going on? The industry has a little secret they don’t want you to know about.
In addition to giving a presentation on the “Finance of Fracking”,
—- November 2018 presentation_Dr_Andreas Schmittner Dr Schmittner is a professor and researcher at the OSU College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences. He gave a presentation on climate change to a joint meeting six years ago that was very well attended. So was his new, updated presentation.
Much of our understanding of climate science comes from books and periodicals. It isn’t often that we have direct input from a climate scientist.
October 2018 presentation_barbara_haya Barbara gave us a presentation on Cap and Trade from her research on California's system, and her studies of what Oregon's variant is doing.
Steve gave us a presentation updating his Oct 2016 presentation on the status of wind/solar energy in the US, and on ongoing power industry trends for energy storage, hybrid renewable power plants, as well as recent overtures for a system of renewable powered micro-grids & data centers that could revolutionize the grid by replacing central power plants and long-distance transmission lines.
* This article pairs well with Dr Pankow's talk: Geoengineering May Be Our Only Hope for Surviving Climate Change
July 2017 Hope Corsair, PhD, Assistant Professor from Oregon TECH, Wilsonville, OR, “Carbon Tax” and “Cap and Trade”.
* July 2017 -- Hope Corsair's Presentation on Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity sector:
Carbon taxes, carbon output limits, carbon cap-and-trade markets, and renewable portfolio standards are all designed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the electric power sector and to increase the penetration of renewables. However, these different policy mechanisms create different incentives for the industry, and players will make different technological decisions based on these incentives.
Carbon taxes are an added cost to doing business and will drive technological change only if the tax is high enough that inaction is more expensive than innovation, and allows unlimited carbon emissions if there is willingness to pay the tax. Power plant-specific GHG limits are economically less efficient in that they force generation companies to implement high-cost emissions reductions technologies (or close) across all generators, rather than reducing more emissions from one plant and less from another if the net emissions reduction is the same but the cost of so doing is lower.
Carbon cap-and-trade markets drive least-cost carbon reduction methodologies across an industry and reduce the amount of carbon emissions allowed over time, but suffer from high transaction costs in the form of running carbon markets and verifying reductions and offsets; like carbon taxes, cap-and-trade may drive industry towards investment in short-term carbon reduction (e.g., natural gas) that may ultimately retard a zero-carbon energy future.
Renewable portfolio standards increase the penetration of renewables but do not address the issue of carbon emissions directly. As such, they can be expensive and less effective (both technologically and economically) at reducing carbon emissions – indeed there are circumstances of increased carbon emissions by systems struggling to meet these standards while technologically insufficiently equipped to deal with high penetrations of low-cost variable renewable sources such as wind. Renewable portfolio standards can also stifle technological innovation as the law must change any time a modern technology enters the market and wishes to be considered “renewable” under the law.
May 2017 Renee Loveland, BA, Director of Sustainability, Gerding Edlen, Sustainability and LEED Certification Presentation
Renee, an LEED Accredited Professional, discussed sustainability at Gerding Elden including project management leading to LEED Certification and early design decisions that affect long-term building performance. She discussed working with a variety of private and public-sector partners to secure energy-efficiency, renewable energy incentives and innovative financing structures.
April 2017 Michael Unger, President, Engineers for a Sustainable Future, Climate Change Presentation
Climate Change is the existential issue to be faced by the world community in the 21st century.
This presentation on Climate Change was given for the first time to an engineering group. Feedback from members was requested as it was deemed very to have it represent the views of Engineering for a Sustainable Future members. It will be offered to other engineering groups and to public groups.
The presentation is divided into the following:
What’s Happening? What’s being done? What can we do?
March 2017 Kyle Disner, Policy Analyst at the City of Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability, Portland’s 2015 Climate Action Plan
Presentation Kyle presented Portland’s 2015 Climate Action Plan. The 2015 plan builds on accomplishments to date with new policies, fresh research on consumption choices and engagement with community leaders serving low-income households and communities of color to advance equity through the City and County’s climate action efforts.
February 2017 Dave Van’t Hof, Acting Oregon Director of Climate Solutions, 2017 Legislative Session in Oregon with Emphasis on Climate Change Presentation
David gave an overview of the 2017 legislative session in Oregon with emphasis on climate change. He will tell us about Climate Solutions plans for the session and tell us about opportunities for ESF participation. He will also talk to about activities regarding sustainability on the local level.
December 2016 Darryl Anderson, Anderson Engineering and Surveying, Direct Use of Geothermal for Heating. Presentation
Darryl presented information on elements of two direct use geothermal heating projects; the Town of Lakeview Geothermal Heating Project (providing heat to the Lakeview schools and hospital) and the Modoc Joint Unified School District Heating Project (providing heat to the Alturas schools and swimming pool).
November 2016 Danial Orzech, Oregon Clean Power Cooperation, Renewable energy Cooperation Presentation In 2014, the Oregon legislature passed a bill allowing the creation of Renewable Energy Cooperatives. The Oregon Clean Power Cooperative was founded soon after that, to provide a way for Oregonians to invest in renewable energy projects in their communities. Dan Orzech explained how local investment can be the key to getting solar and other renewables installed at Oregon’s schools, non-profits, churches and local governments, how renewables will affect our energy future, and the role they will play in the state in recovering from earthquakes and other natural disasters.
October 2016 Steven Saylors, Vestas, Wind Power Industry
According to the latest DOE reporting, wind now provided for nearly 5% of the total US electricity generation; up from less than 1% ten years ago. DOE’s Wind Vision has set goals for the US of 20% by 2030, and 35% by 2050. 41% of all newly installed generation capacity in 2015 were wind energy power plants.
Wind turbine generator technology and controls have advanced to meet the expectations of electric grid operators and planners; often exceeding the capabilities of conventional generators to assist in maintaining grid stability. Trends for larger rotors and higher towers have enabled the industry to reap wind in areas of the country that were considered economically infeasible five years ago.
Oregon has been a leader in renewable energy obtaining over 11% of its energy generation from wind; enough to supply over six hundred thousand homes. Wind resources are excellent in south-eastern Oregon and the Columbia Gorge area. The state’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) sets targets for in-state electricity suppliers, requiring the largest utilities to provide for 50% of their sales from renewables by2040.
September 2016 Mark McLeod, 350PDX and Tracy Farwell, Better Energy LLC, 350.ORG and Methane Effect on Climate Change Here are a few questions Mark McLeod posed and answered briefly: 1. Who is Bill McKibben? What is 350.org? What is 350PDX? 2. In June 2016, Bill McKibben served as Bernie Sander's climate representative on the Platform Committee at the Democratic Party National Convention. What was his experience? 3. On August 15, 2016, Bill McKibben wrote a lengthy and very powerful essay, “A World at War,” in The New Republic Magazine. In that article, McKibben argues that, at this point in time, the only chance we have to a avoid “climate collapse” is for the world to launch a mobilization equivalent to the one that the US launched when it finally entered World War II in 1941-45. What do you think of this analogy?
4. What is “climate justice” and what is its relationship to “climate change?” 5. From where are the most impactful responses to the huge challenges of climate change likely to come? From governments? From the transnational business community? From the local business community? From grassroots organizations focused on building strong responses to the challenges of climate change? From Native Americans and other “communities of color?” Tracy Farwell talked about research on methane as a greenhouse gas that is, in the short term, far more destructive of climate than CO2.
June 2016 Sam Littlefield, EDP Renewables North America, Solar Electric Generating Facility Development
May 2016 Varner Seaman, Portland General Electric, Manager of State Legislative Affairs, Highlights of SB 1547, Oregon’s Electric Utility GHG Reduction Legislation
March 2016 Scott Nelson, Summit Building Engineering, Home Rainwater Collection System
December 2015 Rodrigo George, Bonneville Power Administration, Sustainability at BPA
November 2015 Kevin Hicks, LEED AP, PAE-Engineers, Net Zero, Bullitt Center Building in Seattle
October 2015 Christy Splitt, Oregon League of conservation Voters, 2015 Oregon Legislative Review and 2016 Legislative Preview
July 2015 Sam Hagerman, Hammer and Hand, Energy Efficient Buildings
June 2015 Vinh Mason, City of Portland, Climate Action Plan
May 2015 Devon Downeysmith, Climate Communications and Outreach Manager for Renew Oregon, Renew Oregon
April 2015 Dr. Wayne Lei, Portland General Electric, Biomass Fuel for the Boardman Plant
March 2015 Kevin Whitener, Portland General Electric, Salem Smart Power Center
February 2015 Dr. Andrew Fountain, Portland state University, History of Glacier change Investigations and Relation to Climate Change.
January 2015 Craig Ernst, Oregon solar Energy Industries Association and Alejandro Savransky, Energy Trust of Oregon, Solar energy in Oregon
December 2014 Carrie Hearne, Climate Solutions, The 2015 Legislative Agenda and how Climate Solutions is moving forward on Climate and Clean Energy in Oregon.
November 2014 Tom McNulty, DNVGL, Status of Wind and Solar Energy
October 2014 Lenny Dee, 350.org and Tom White, Green Globes, Building Energy Efficiency
September 2014 Patsy Feeman, Principal at Global Edge Solutions, Group Discussion, Clarifying Strategies for ESF
August 2014 Kathleen Newman, PhD, Oregonians for Renewable Energy Progress OREP, Small Scale Solar Energy in Oregon
June 2014 Mike Horner, Sierra Club, Member of Beyond Coal Task Force. Coal Trains / Barges in Oregon and Washington
May 2014 Bethany Foran, Chair, Portland Chapter of Engineers without Boarders, Sustainable Development within EWB. Bethany gave a presentation on EWB projects implemented in Tanzania and Ecuador.
October 2013 Carol Brown, PGE Sustainability Manager, Sustainability Integration at PGE.
June 2013 Clair Carlson, Executive Director, Solar Oregon, Energy Related Items before the Oregon Legislature. Clair gave a presentation of Oregon’s solar environment including distributed generation and utility solar projects.
May 2013 Brendan McCarthy, Government Affairs Specialists with PGE, Energy Related Items before the Oregon Legislature. The presentation included carbon tax study and emissions performance standards.
April 2013 Jana Gastellum, Program Director, Oregon Environmental Council (OEC), Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency. Jana presented OEC’s work to implement climate solutions with focus on clean fuels and energy efficiency, solar energy and a feed-in tariff pilot.
February 2013 Dr. Andrew Harris of OHSU Global Health Center and Regna Merritt, Campaign director at Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility, Coal Exports in the Northwest.
December 2012 Chuck Johnson, Director of Oregon and Washington Chapters of Physicians for Social Responsibility’s Joint Task Force on Nuclear Power, Nuclear Power at Hanford. Chuck presented information on the hazards of Columbia Generation Station and nuclear waste at Hanford.
November 2012 Brett VandenHeuvel, Executive Director of Columbia Riverkeepers and Greg Peden representing the Coalition for Jobs and Exports. Coal Exports in the Northwest, Point – Counterpoint. Brett and Greg discussed the merits of developing coal export terminals at five locations in Oregon and Washington.
April 2012 David Cohan, Senior Manager for Codes and Standards of the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance. Energy Efficiency. David gave a presentation on energy codes and increasing compliance.
March 2012 Andreas Schmittner, Professor and Researcher at OSU’s Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences. Impacts of Doubling CO2 in the Atmosphere. Andreas was lead author of a study of the effects on global warming from a doubling of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. He reported on the results of the study and also gave his perspective on the impacts of global warming.
January 2012 Dr. Chad Stillinger, Professor, Renewable Energy, OIT. Wave Energy. Chad presented the benefits of wave energy and recent wave energy prototypes at OSU.
May 2011 John Breshears of Architectural Applications. Building – Integrated Enthalpy Systems. John included in his presentation a discussion of Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy, an agency formed to incubate cutting edge technologies
April 2011 Dr. Slobodan Petrovic, Renewable Energy Engineering Professor at OIT. Solar HOPE. Solar Hope is an organization formed to help change the energy outlook in Africa. Under the program, OIT students have installed PV systems in Tanzania.
March 2011 Margie Gardiner, CEO of Bonneville Environmental Foundation (BEF). Presentation of BEF’s goals and activities. BEF is an organization that pioneers entrepreneurial solutions to remedy the earth’s most pressing energy, water and climate concerns.
February 2011 Jonathan Cohen, CEO of Image Energy (IE). Sustainability Goals of a Small Construction Company. IE has been established in 2003 to make a profound change in how citizens use energy in their homes and business.
November 2010 Sham Beri of PGE, The Future of Nuclear Power in the US. Sham presented information on the role that nuclear power can play in the future energy mix.
October 2010 Lisa Adatto, Oregon Director of Climate Solutions. Climate Change and Energy Issues
September 2010 David Clements, Professor of OIT. Bio-mass energy, Its Potential and Practicality
July 2010 Conrad Eustis of PGE, Smart Grid. Conrad presented information metering, demand responses, home displays, smart appliances and utility enterprise systems development.
June 2010 Jean Baumann, Sustainability
April 2010 Dr. Wayne Lei, PGE’s Director of Research and Development, Bio Fuels for Boardman Power Plant
March 2010 Mark Osborn of PGE, Renewable Projects Less than 10 MW at PGE. Solar and wind projects in both planning and development phases at PGE were discussed
February 2010 Ruben Plantico of PGE, PGE’s Sustainability Policy. Ruben presented information on PGE’s sustainability policy, PGE’s energy mix, and the future of Boardman Coal Plant.
December 2009 Lisa Adatto of Climate Solutions, Climate Solutions Programs. Lisa presented information on Climate Solutions Activities, Status of Federal and State Legislation.
November 2009 Don Bain of Aeropower Services, Wind Farms. The realities of wind farm development were discussed.
September 2009 Suzanne Leta Liou, Renewable Northwest Projects (RNP). Suzanne explained RNP activities – advocating for public policy measures, providing technical input for legislative and rule-making activities and encouraging renewable energy purchases.
May 2009 Seth Truby, Northwest Neighborhood Energy (NNE). Seth presented NNE’s proposal to create a central energy center and capture storm water.
April 2009 Lisa Adatto, Oregon Director of Climate Solutions (CS). Lisa gave a presentation on CS activities. There was also a discussion on CS and ESF working together.
March 2009 Katie Daily, Oregon League of Conservation Voters. 2009 Oregon Legislature
August 2008 Sallie Schullinger-Krause of OEC, Global Warming. Sallie gave a presentation on OEC activities related to global warming.
May 2008 Dick Roy, Center for Earth Leadership. Dick gave recommendations for developing ESF.